Table of Contents Context Nearly three thousand years after they were composed, The Iliad and The Odyssey remain two of the most celebrated and widely read stories ever told, yet next to nothing is known about their composer. He was certainly an accomplished Greek bard, and he probably lived in the late eighth and early seventh centuries b.
Robert Edgeworth July Despite its position as one of the fundamental documents of western civilization, the Idiad is in many ways almost incomprehensible to the modern western mind.
Its incomprehensibility results not only from the passage of time but also from a basic shift in the mythic paradigms by which we interpret warfare. James Aho identifies two basic types of holy war myths: After a brief examination of the present influence of the transcendent-historical war myth on our culture, this paper focuses on the war myth in the Iliad.
The thesis of this paper is that the Iliad best matches the immanentist-cosmological war myth. The purpose of transcendent-historical warfare is to redeem the fallen world by restoring it to a proper relation to a transcendent god.
Adherents believe in the possibility of historical advancement as their god establishes his justice Aho Aho traces the roots of the transcendent-historical myth to ancient Hebraism, from which it spread to Christianity excluding medieval Catholicism and Islam Aho According to Robert Jewett and John Lawrence, this attitude had undergone secularization in the west, but the structure of the myth remains intact in Communism, Nazism, and the American monomyth.
Despite secularization the mythic structure has remained intact in subsequent wars as we have sought to fight the war to end all wars, to make the world safe for democracy, to overcome the Evil Empire, and to solve a domestic drug problem through Operation Just Cause Jewett and Lawrence The differences in the ways wars are fought in the two mythical systems are interrelated to their divergent views of reality.
The immanentist-cosmological myth stresses the presence of the divine in the cosmos, with the result that it differs from the transcendent-historical type in motives for war, attitudes toward war, and approved ways of fighting Aho Mythological Religious Symbolism in the Iliad According to Aho immanentist-cosmological religions ground reality in the feminine principle, which they identify with the earth.
The Magna Mater is generally both womb and tomb, the source and end of life. Unlike Yahweh, the Magna Mater is not distinct from the world, but immanent in it Aho The earth itself is lifeless until the fecundating sun and rain gods bring life Aho Night arose from the primordial chaos, then gave birth to the sky and the earth.
These latter two mated to produce life. Within such a realm, evil and human suffering represent a disruption of the order. If humans fail to submit the the cosmic way, then the world is in danger of slipping back into chaos Aho The microcosm of the individual and the mesocosm of the society must be kept in line with the macrocosm of the universe if order is to be preserved.
The purpose of holy war is to restore the balance when it has been lost Aho The dramatic tensions in the Iliad result from a disruption of microcosms and mesocosms that leads to a disruption in the macrocosm.
Leaf and Bayfield xv. This internal state results from a disruption in the mesocosm as Achilles and Agamemnon argue over Briseis.
This internal division parallels the broader social division that occasioned the Trojan war. Paris took Helen from her husband and his host Menelaus.
Violating his host brought the involvement of Zeus Xeinios, who protects the law of host and guest. The gods themselves choose sides between the Trojans and the Greeks, exacerbating the cosmic division.
Zeus himself tends to favor Hector and the Trojans, but he also favors Achilles Homer; trans. Smith and Miller, xv.The story covered by “The Iliad” begins nearly ten years into the seige of Troy by the Greek forces, led by Agamemnon, King of Mycenae.
The Greeks are quarrelling about whether or not to return Chryseis, a Trojan captive of King Agamemnon, to her father, Chryses, a priest of Apollo.
Iliad by Ancient Greek Poet Homer. The poems of Illiad depict the seige of the city of Ilion or Troy during the Trojan War.
The word Illiad itself means "something concerned with Ilion". The “Iliad,” a passage from book VIII of a Greek manuscript, late firth, early sixth centuries.
(Public Domain) The “Iliad” was composed as one continuous poem. The Iliad Quotes (showing of ) “ There is the heat of Love, the pulsing rush of Longing, the lover’s whisper, irresistible—magic to make the sanest man go mad.” ― Homer, The Iliad. The Iliad—A Practical Approach.
by Phyllis Taylor. Contents of Curriculum Unit Narrative; Select a short passage from the Iliad and have students tell it in their own way or have students write the lead paragraph of a newspaper or magazine article from the passage. Griffin, Jasper, Homer on Life and Death, Clarendon Press.
Greek Life As Depicted in Homer's Epic: The Odyssey by christos1 In Homer’s epic, The Odyssey, various aspects of the ancient Greeks are revealed through the actions, characters, plot, and wording.